From Silk to Sanctions and Back Again: Contemporary Sino-Iranian Economic Relations – By Aaron Morris

This paper proceeds as follows. First, an in-depth examination of the history and rapid growth of Sino-Iranian economic ties provides the contextual background necessary to understand the current state and future direction of the bilateral economic relationship. Next, the current status of the Sino-Iranian trade relationship is examined in greater depth, with a focus on energy […]

The Evolution of Participation Banking in Turkey – By Liam Hardy

Participation banking, a moniker for financial practices structures in accordance with Islamic law, has not traditionally made up a large segment of Turkey’s finance sector due to the country’s secular tradition. However, it has grown in recent years because of more permissible public attitudes, decreased trust in the conventional banking sector, and the desire to […]

Crisis Management in Libya: Learning the Lessons of 1986 – By Sarah Charlton

In April 1986, the Reagan administration with the support of the Thatcher administration in the United Kingdom, bombed several targets within Libya as retaliation for Libyan terrorism that they believed had begun to challenge essential U.S. security interests. Although the stated goal was to change Libya’s behavior and reduce its incentives for supporting terrorism, senior […]

The Role of Leadership and Rhetoric in Identity Politics: Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), a Case Study – By Bilal Baloch

This paper uses the speeches of Altaf Hussain, the political and spiritual leader of The Muttahida Qaumi Movement, as a lens for examining MQM ideologyand its development. The framework to carry outthe analysis are divided into three phases: (i)1985-1992, defining ideology; (ii) 1993-2002, exile and development; (iii) 2003-2010, gaining legitimacy. This paper concludes that, while […]