Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Mohammad Mohammad Sadiq Al-Sadr: Mobilizing the Iraqi Shia Base – By Mike Airosus

In the existing literature on the Sadrist Movement in Iraq, there has been little analysis of one of its key actors, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Mohammad Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr. Although he never directly controlled the Mahdi Army, Sadiq al-Sadr, founded the Sadrist Movement, directly challenged the Saddam Hussein regime, providing the legitimacy and inspiration for the […]

Explaining Protests in the Gulf Monarchies During the Arab Uprisings: The Role of Coalitions, Oil and International Influences – by Andreas Kaufmann

figure I

This article aims to explain why the six Gulf monarchies Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain experienced such varying degrees of protest during the Arab uprisings in 2011 and why Bahrain experienced mass protest while the other five monarchies did not. This article argues that the reason for the monarchies’ […]